Income-tax is levied on the annual income of a person. The year under the Income-tax Law is the period starting from 1st April and ending on 31st March of next calendar year. The Income-tax Law classifies the year as (1) Previous year, and (2) Assessment year.
The year in which income is earned is called as previous year and the year in which the income is charged to tax is called as assessment year.
e.g., Income earned during the period of 1st April, 2015 to 31st March, 2016 is treated as income of the previous year 2015-16. Income of the previous year 2015-16 will be charged to tax in the next year, i.e., in the assessment year 2016-17.
Income-tax is to be paid by every person. The term 'person' as defined under the Income-tax Act covers in its ambit natural as well as artificial persons.
For the purpose of charging Income-tax, the term 'person' includes Individual, Hindu Undivided Families [HUFs], Association of Persons [AOPs], Body of individuals [BOIs], Firms, LLPs, Companies, Local authority and any artificial juridical person not covered under any of the above.
Thus, from the definition of the term 'person' it can be observed that, apart from a natural person, i.e., an individual, any sort of artificial entity will also be liable to pay Income-tax
The rates of Income-tax and corporate taxes are available in the Finance Act passed by the Parliament every year. You can also check your tax liability by using the free online tax calculator available at www.incometaxindia.gov.in
Self – Assessment Tax or Advance Tax is to be deposited to the credit of Government by using the challan prescribed in this behalf, i.e., ITNS 280. The Challan can be downloaded from www.incometaxindia.gov.in Tax can be paid in the designated banks through two modes, viz., physical mode, i.e., cash/cheque or e-payment mode.
The tax that is to be paid by the companies on their income is called as corporate tax, and for payment of same in the challan it is mentioned as Income-tax on Companies (Corporation tax). Tax paid by non-corporate assess is called as Income-tax, and for payment of the same in the challan it is to be mentioned as Income-tax (other than Companies).
Advance tax is to be calculated on the basis of expected tax liability of the year. Advance tax is to be paid in installments as given below:
Status By 15th June By 15th Sept 15th Dec 15th March
Corporate 15% 45% 75% 100%
Non-Corporate Nil 30% 60% 100%
Any tax paid till 31st March is treated as advance tax.
The deposit of advance tax is made through challan ITNS 280 by ticking the relevant column, i.e., advance tax.
Under the Income-tax Act, every person has the responsibility to correctly compute and pay his due taxes. Where the Department finds that there has been understatement of income and resultant tax due, it takes measures to compute the actual tax amount that ought to have been paid. This demand raised on the person is called as Tax on regular assessment. The tax on regular assessment has to be paid within 30 days of receipt of the notice of demand.
While making payment of tax, apart from other things, one should clearly mention following :
Head of payment, i.e., Corporation Tax/Income-tax (other than companies)
Amount and mode of payment of tax
Type of payment [i.e., Advance tax/Self assessment tax/Tax on regular assessment/Tax on Dividend/Tax on distributed Income to Unit holders/Surtax]
The unique identification number called as PAN [Permanent Account Number] allotted by the IT Department.
The NSDL website [http://www.tin-nsdl.com] provides online services called as Challan Status Enquiry. You can also check your tax credit by viewing your Form 26AS from your e-filing account at www.incometaxindiaefiling.gov.in
Form 26AS will also disclose the credit of TDS/TCS in your account.
The possible reasons for no credit being displayed in your Form 26AS can be:
Deductor/collector has not filed his TDS/TCS statement;
You have not provided PAN to the deductor/collector;
You have provided incorrect PAN to the deductor/collector;
The deductor/collector has made an error in quoting your PAN in the TDS/TCS return;
The deductor/collector has not quoted your PAN;
The details of challan against which your TDS/TCS was deposited was wrongly quoted in the statement by the deductor or wrongly quoted in the challan details uploaded by the bank.
To rectify these errors you may request the deductor:
to file a TDS/TCS statement if it has not been filed;
to rectify the PAN using a PAN correction statement in the TDS/TCS statement that has been already uploaded if it has made an error in the PAN quoted;
to furnish a correction statement if the deductor had filed a TDS/TCS statement and had inadvertently missed providing your details or you had not given your PAN to him before he filed the TDS/TCS return;
to furnish a correction statement if the deductor had filed a TDS/TCS statement which had mistake in the challan details;
to take up with the bank to rectify any mistake in the amount in the challan details uploaded by the bank.
He/She is an officer of the Income-tax Department who has been given jurisdiction over a particular geographical area in a city/town or over a class of persons. You can find out from the PRO or from the Departmental website http://www.incometaxindia.gov.in about the officer administering the law which could be based on your geographical jurisdiction or the nature of income earned by you.
For every source of income you have to maintain proof of earning and the records specified under the Income-tax Act. In case no such records are prescribed, you should maintain reasonable records with which you can support the claim of income.
The Income-tax Act does not prescribe any specific books of account for a person engaged in business or in non-specified profession. However, such a person is expected to keep and maintain such book of account and other documents as may enable the Assessing Officer to compute his total income in accordance with the provisions of the Act.
For companies the books of account are prescribed under the Companies Act. Further, the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India has prescribed various Accounting Standards and Guidelines that are required to be followed by the business entities As regards the maintenance of books of account by a professional, who is engaged in specified profession has to maintain certain prescribed books of account, if the annual receipts from the profession exceed Rs. 1,50,000 in all the three years immediately preceding the previous year (in case of newly set up profession, his annual receipts in the profession for that year are likely to exceed Rs. 1,50,000).
Specified profession covers profession of legal, medical, engineering, architectural, accountancy, company secretary, technical consultancy, interior decoration, authorized representative, film artist or information technology.
For more details on the provisions relating to maintenance of books of account you may refer provisions of section 44AA read with Rule 6F of the Income-tax Rules, 1962.
Yes, you can claim relief in respect of income which is charged to tax both in India as well as abroad. Relief is either granted as per the provisions of double taxation avoidance agreement entered into with that country (if any) by the Government of India or by allowing relief as per section 91 of the Act in respect of tax paid in the foreign country.
All the books of account and related documents should be kept at the main place of business, i.e., where the business or profession is generally carried on. These documents should be preserved for a minimum of six years. Where, however, the assessment has been reopened, all books of account and other documents which were kept and maintained at the time of reopening of assessment should continue to be so kept and maintained till the assessment so reopened has been completed.
Return of income can be filed either in hard copy at the local office of the Income-tax Department or can be electronically filed at www.incometaxindiaefiling.gov.in
Yes, if one could not file the return of income on or before the prescribed due date, then he can file a belated return. A belated return can be filed within a period of one year from the end of the assessment year or before completion of the assessment, whichever is earlier. Return filed after the prescribed due date is called as a belated return. However, w.e.f. 01-04-2017, belated income-tax return for the Assessment Year 2017-18 and onwards can be filed at any time before the end of the relevant assessment year or before the completion of the assessment, whichever is earlier.
Every person deducting tax at source has to furnish the details of tax deducted by him to the Income-tax Department. The details will cover the name of the deductee, Permanent Account Number of the deductee, amount of tax deducted, amount paid to the deductee, date of payment of TDS to the credit of Government, etc. On the basis of the details of TDS provided by the deductor, the Income-tax Department will update Form 26AS of the deductee.
Many times the actual amount of TDS and TDS credit as appearing in Form 26AS may differ and it may happen that the TDS credit appearing in Form 26AS may be less as compared to actual TDS, this may happen due to reasons like non-furnishing of TDS details to the Income-tax Department by the deductor, deducting the tax in incorrect Permanent Account Number, etc. In such a case the deductee should approach the deductor and request him to take the necessary steps to rectify the discrepancy due to above reasons.
The Income-tax Department updates the TDS details in Form 26AS on basis of details provided by the person deducting the tax (i.e., the deductor), hence, if there is any default on the part of deductor like non -furnishing of TDS details (i.e., TDS return) to the Income-tax Department, deducting the tax in incorrect Permanents Account Number, etc. then Form 26AS will not reflect the actual TDS. In such a case, the taxpayer may not be able to claim the credit of correct TDS. Hence, the taxpayers are advised to confirm the tax credit appearing in Form 26AS and should reconcile the difference, if any.